Volleyball was invented by a YMCA physical education instructor in Holyoke, Massachusetts.

Men’s and women’s volleyball became an Olympic sport in 1964.

Object of the game:
Two teams of six players (3 in the front row and 3 in the back row) try to score points by hitting the ball over a net so that the opposing team cannot return the ball or stop it from contacting the floor.

General Rules:
1. There is a coin toss to determine which team serves first.
The winner of the coin toss has a choice between;

Serving first
Receiving first
C) Choice of side.

2. Each player has a position on the court that they must start in before the serve. However, once the ball is served a player can go anywhere on the court.

Games go to 25 points. You must win by 2 points! Teams will play a best of 3, 5 or 7 matches. Tie breaking games go to 15 points. For example, if teams are playing a best of 3 and both team had a win each (1-1) then the third game would go to 15 points.

4. The ball can be hit with any part of the body.

5. Each team gets up to three hits to get the ball over the net.

6. A player cannot hit the ball twice in a row, except on a block.

Serves cannot be blocked or spiked

8. If a player blocks the ball at the net, this is not considered a team hit, therefore, the team still gets three more hits to get the ball over the net.

9. T
he normal progression of hits in volleyball are usually as follows: PASS, SET, HIT. The pass is usually a bump but can also be a volley. The set is usually a volley and a hit can be a spike, tip or roll.

Points are scored in a rally point system. This means that the winner of the rally scores a point and serves the ball next.

A point is scored when:
- The ball hits the floor on the opponents court
· The opponents cannot return the ball in 3 hits or less (3 hit maximum).
· The opponents hit the ball out of bounds.
· The opponents commit a violation (see list below for type of violations).
· The Server hits the ball into the net and it DOES NOT go over.
· The Server hits the ball and it hits the ceiling (considered out).
· The Server hits the ball out of bounds.

Violations – result in loss of service and a point gained by the other team:
1. Carry
– Catching or lifting the ball with an open hand(s).
2. Double Hit – A player hits the ball twice in a row.
3. Four Hits The team hits the ball more than 3 times to get the ball over the net (Blocks do not count as a hit).
4. Net – contacting the net during play or crossing over into the other team’s court (under the net)
5. Back Court Attack – A player in the back row cannot come up to the net and spike, tip or roll the ball.
6. Line Violation – When serving you must have both feet behind the service line when contacting the ball on a serve.
7. Unsportsmanlike behaviour = Equals a yellow or red card which can lead to an ejection from the game. It also means that the other team gains a point and gets to serve.
8. Rotational Fault: If any member(s) of your team is out of rotation (position) at the time the serve is made, the referee will stop play and award the other team a point and service.

· Shake hands at the beginning and end of the match.
· Roll the ball UNDER the net when not in rally mode.
· No show boating or gloating after a point gained or missed play by the other team. You are allowed cheers but that’s all. A yellow or red card could be issued.
· Only the captain can ask the referee a question. No other players may ask the referee anything.
· Be honest in calling your own side of the court (i.e. out of bounds, net violation, etc.)

· The server can serve from any position behind the back line of the court.
· The server only gets one chance at a toss and 8 seconds to serve it from the sound of the whistle. If it is not hit, the other team scores a point and service.
· A player keeps service until the other team wins the right to serve. In our classes we place a maximum 3 serves and then the service team rotates.
· A serve that hits the net and continues over the net to the other side is considered a good serve.
· There are 2 types of serves we have learned. The overhand and the underhand. Both serves use the heel of the hand to hit the ball over the net. In the overhand serve, the toss is the most important part of the service.


Ready Position:
· Staggered Stance
· Knees bent as if you were sitting on an imaginary chair.
· Arms out to your sides with palms facing up which allows you to be ready to volley or bump the ball.
· Weight on your toes.

The Overhead Pass AKA: Volley - used to pass a high ball
· Make a diamond or triangle shape with your hands.
· Hands must be above forehead to make contact.
· Emphasis on pushing the ball with the pads of your fingers rather than slapping the ball.
· Use your legs for power.
· Square to the target you want the ball to go to.

The Forearm Pass - AKA: Bump - used to pass a low ball
· Contact is made with your forearms
· Two ways to put your hands:
1. Make a fist and clasp it with opposite hand. Make sure that your thumbs are pointing down and your elbows
are locked straight.

2. Cup one hand over the other, turn thumbs in and elbows are locked.
· Keep Low in Ready position
· No swinging of the arms! Legs do 90% of the work. Power comes from the standing up with the legs to meet the ball.
· Square (facing) the direction you want the ball to go, not the direction the ball is coming from.

The Spike: - Fast offensive hit to a specific spot.
· Foot progression:
Right handed = Left step then stride off left foot and land right-left so that you can take off on both feet upwards to hit the ball.

Left handed = Right step then stride off right foot and land left-right so that you can take off with both feet straight up to hit the ball.

· Bow and arrow with hands
· Contact the ball with heel of the hand then flick the wrist downwards so that the fingertips strike the ball (this causes top spin on the ball).
· Extend elbow to contact the ball at its highest point.
· Cannot touch the net
· A “roll” is like a “spike” but it does not go straight down to the floor, instead it is used to roll the ball over a blocker and land near the back of the court.

Roll: (attack shot) - used to place the ball overtop of a block and into the back court.
  1. Bow and arrow technique.
  2. Extend arm to contact the ball at it's highest point.
  3. Fingers closed, hand straight.
  4. Contact ball with heel of hand then snap fingers over top of ball for rolling action (spin).
  5. Body position facing intended target.

The Block: - Used to stop spiked balls
· Feet are shoulder width apart with knees slightly bent.
· Square to the net about 1 foot from the net
· Start with arms above shoulders
· Hands come together with stiff-straight fingers as you reach the top of the net.
· Fingers are spread
· Cannot touch the net.