BACKS - Players in the backfield who spread out and attempt to run the ball delivered from the forwards who are in a scrum or lineout.

FORWARDS - Players who participate in the scrums and lineouts.

LINEOUT - Restarts play after the ball goes out over the touchline (sideline). The team that did not touch the ball last has the throw-in.

SCRUM - A way to restart play where a group of players form a tunnel with the opposition.

DROP KICK - Used to restart play after a score or certain other occasions.

DEAD BALL: When the ball is out of play. This happens when the ball has gone outside the playing area or the referee has blown for a stoppage.

FORWARD PASS - A violation (when a player passes the ball forwards) that usually results in a scrum to the non-offending side.

FREE KICK - A relatively minor law violation that allows the non-offending side to restart play in an unopposed fashion. Opponents must retreat 10-meters and wait for the non-offending team to kick the ball through the mark. A free kick cannot be taken for goal.

OFFSIDE - Players in front of a member of their own team who was last in possession of the ball.
Players in front of established lines at a scrum.
In some instances, one can retreat to an onside position without penalty; other times the infraction is automatically a violation.

KNOCK ON - The accidental hitting or dropping the ball from the hands or arms knocking the ball forwards toward the dead ball line. Results in the same scenario as a forward pass -- a scrum to the non- offending team.

MARK - The place where the referee signals play will be restarted. For example, the referee marks where the scrum will take place, or where the penalty has occurred.

PENALTY - Awarded after a serious infringement of the laws. Offenders are required to move back 10-meters while the opposition is given possession to restart play unopposed (usually by tapping the ball with your foot and either running or passing the ball). Many times the non-offending team will attempt a kick at goal, worth three points

PUT IN - Rolling the ball down the center of the scrum tunnel. The ball is usually put in by the scrum half.

TAP KICK (OR "TAP MOVE"): - A gentle kick to oneself, followed by a pick up, used to restart play after either a penalty or free kick is awarded.

RUCK - A ball-winning activity following a tackle and release; a ruck is formed if a player from both teams is in physical contact over the ball.

- Throwing the ball down the middle of a lineout.

TRY - Forcing the ball onto the ground with downward pressure over the opposition's goal line.

22-METER LINE - Balls kicked out of bounds from behind the "22" are restarted by a lineout where the ball went out;
- Balls kicked out of bounds from in front of the 22 are restarted by a lineout where the ball was kicked.
- The exception is a ball kicked out of bounds immediately after a penalty has been awarded; the
lineout is held where the ball went out and the non-offending team (the team that kicked the ball) retains the